I am pleased to acknowledge how much I have learned in recent years from fellow members of the UK Values Alliance – originators of the World Values Day. There is something special, something deeply collaborative about the people who work as coaches and organisational development facilitators on values and culture.
That you can not simply buy fair trade products but also invest in fair trade producers is down to the life and work of Mark Hayes, who passed away just before Christmas 2019.
Mark was the founder of the fair trade financial co-operative Shared Interest, which provides trade credit and finance to producer co-operatives overseas. A distinguished economist, he was also a noted commentator on the work of John Maynard Keynes, completing a book on the work of Keynes which was launched at Robinson College in Cambridge on December 5th 2019.
Starting work in 1978 with the Industrial and Commercial Finance Corporation (renamed as 3i in 1984), Mark developed his skills as a banker. In 1987, together with Robert Oakeshott, the father of the Employee Ownership Association, he visited the Mondragón network of co-operatives in Basque Spain, a trip that helped to point him towards alternative economic options.
A few years later, Mark and family made the move up to Newcastle to start a new partnership with Traidcraft, looking to establish a finance arm for the fair trade pioneer. The direct link with Traidcraft fell through but Mark could see a way to move ahead with a new entity, what became Shared Interest. As he would tell the story to me, “it came to me that what we needed was not a bank but a financial co-operative, bringing people into an ongoing relationship based on values.”
Starting in 1990, Shared Interest was run out of a spare bedroom in the house of Mark and Andrea, his wife, both working to make it more than a dream. What made the difference was a stroke of luck, although it could also be called providence – Mark was a man of faith throughout his life (and latterly holding the St Hilda Chair in Catholic Social Thought and Practice at Durham University, from 2014-2016).
Mark had undergone the exams required to become an authorised investment adviser under the financial regulations of the time, with his certification, under Nimloth Corporate Finance, covering his work for Shared Interest. He happened to sit in on a meeting in Edinburgh of the Scottish Churches Action for World Development, which highlighted that the way that the churches were raising funds for their own overseas investment activity was not lawful under those same regulations. What they needed was an authorised adviser and the solution was Shared Interest.
Registered as a society in March 1990, Shared Interest went on to attract £750,000 in share capital from 600 members in the first year. In 1991, Mark oversaw the first loans to fair trade businesses, channelling these in subsequent years through the allied networks overseas of the Ecumenical Development Co-operative Society, Oikocredit.
The vision wasn’t necessarily limited to fair trade – there was a wider vision at the start of the scope for finance to play a role in global justice. But fair trade has proved an effective market in which to make a difference.
The need for finance in fair trade starts with the needs of producer co-ops for working capital. To grow the beans that will become the chocolate bars or coffee packs sold in the UK takes time. To process and transport the produce takes time. Finance from lenders such as Shared Interest can cover the costs of all of this, repaid once the revenues come in from sales.
In simple terms then, what Shared Interest typically offers is advance payments on sales for fair trade co-operatives overseas. This is small scale, high risk lending and rarely available from mainstream banks, here or abroad. But as Shared Interest showed over the nine years Mark was Managing Director, it can pay its way.
Today, there are 11,700 members of Shared Interest, typically investing with patience, with average share holdings of around fourteen years. You can join online. In 2019, the society helped to make a positive impact on the lives of around 400,000 people across 55 countries.
An example is Azucena Quispe Rodas, a member of Cecanor, a coffee co-op based on the northern coast of Peru. The co-operative is playing a key role in promoting the role and voice of women in the coffee sector through its partnership Café Feminino.
Shared Interest has provided finance for Rodas and her fellow members at Cecanor for over six years, providing regular payments for their crops and enabling investments to help the farmers improve their yield on a sustainable basis. What she says is that the finance from Shared Interest “helps us to improve our farms, improve our food and also improve our homes.”
Mark set out his approach to co-operative finance in a 2013 discussion paper for Co-operatives UK. He argued that “the co-operative principle of limited return on capital needs to be asserted clearly but also understood more imaginatively.”
This is an appreciation of a life that I feel deeply. I am writing this on my way to represent Co-operatives UK at Mark’s funeral.
We first met in the early 1990s and I last saw him in November, courtesy of Patricia Alexander and the team at Shared Interest. Having finished his new book on Keynes, I was looking forward to talk with him on the growing agenda for and articulation of a green new deal, such as in the excellent recent book by Ann Pettifor.
There is a saying that I learned from a farmer co-operative last year that seems appropriate. When someone dies who has given so much to society, it is for society and not just the person that we grieve.
2020 will be a big year for the UK co-operative sector and it has been a joy to start on New Years Day at Tafarn Sinc – the highest co-operative pub in the country.
In a remote Pembrokeshire village, with a closed train station across the path and a slate quarry in the hills, the zinc clad pub is a warm-hearted and eclectic model of community action. Threatened with closure in 2017, the local community rallied around to save the pub as a local facility.
“When we heard that the pub was being put up for sale, we didn’t worry at first,” says Hefin Wyn, from the neighbouring village of Maenclochog. But then, when no bidder came forward, he joined other members to save the pub through community ownership. The campaign was backed by Pembrokeshire-born actor Rhys Ifans and supported through Co-ops UK’s community shares programme. £400,000 was raised through shares and loans to save a pub first opened in 1876.
On New Years Day 2020, I found traditional dancing over the afternoon, followed by folk music, at least up to the start of Doctor Who on TV.
“We became members because we simply wanted to save the pub” explains Sheila, a community care worker who danced and played today. “As the pub was shaped by the community, so we got involved more.”
Dan works behind the bar, interested in how community ownership works and also a keen Manchester United fan. Peter, who I just missed after stepping out for a walk in the neighbouring hillside park, also community run, is distinguished academic on mining history… and takes photos for the society of music evenings.
Coming up in 2020 will be our activities around two points of history – the 150th anniversary of Co-operatives UK, of which Tafarn Sinc is a member, and the 175th anniversary of the original Rochdale Pioneers, widely recognised as the first modern co-operative.
Looking forward, we will be launching our next round of our Unfound Programme, supporting a new generation of digital co-operatives. And we are campaigning with the Employee Ownership Association for a step change in industrial democracy with our joint One Million Owners campaign.
In policy terms, it is welcome that one of the only financial commitments in the Conservative Manifesto for the December 2019 election was a promise of a new Community Ownership Fund. We will work collaboratively with partners to make the most of this opportunity, which mirrors the success under the last Government of the community housing programme, championed by the Confederation of Cooperative Housing and allies.
The example of community co-operatives such as Tafarn Sinc show what is possible when people come together.
In tough times, that is the enduring hope that co-operatives point to – that we are stronger together.
‘Fish is jumpin and the cotton is high’ is of course from the 1935 song Summertime, Porgy & Bess; a favourite of my late father and one of the many wonders that I learned from him. But I’d never been near a cotton field, until today
Antbirlik is a regional cooperative that started processing and marketing cotton from local farmers before the Antalya region became what it is today, a well developed tourist destination, with its beaches, mountains, archaeological heritage and warm micro-climate, with seas warm enough to swim in at dawn in December (yes… I like to if I can).
Today the co-op has ten thousand members and has diversified into a range of products, including oranges, lemons and above all olives. I am told that the Anatolian olive has a heart shaped stone and that the region is said to include the earliest settlement in time to harvest olives.
When the cotton comes in from the fields, it heads for a factory run by the co-op, which can process 200 tonnes every day. From there, the packed cotton, wonderfully soft, heads off across Turkey to be made into products for Adidas, Nike and Puma among others.
I know that cotton can be a water intensive product to grow, but the members I talk to say that in an area still with swamps, that is not yet an issue. They do operate an environmental accreditation system, Better Cotton, and support farmers with advice, but it is not organic; that is something for the future, they hope.
The cotton is loaded into a mini mountain at the entrance to the works. The cotton is high.
Then, within the factory itself, cotton is everywhere, as the threads rise and fall in the air, hanging like artwork on ladder steps and machinery frames.
The beauty of the cotton, soft and grey-white (with the remnants separated out to make animal feed) is a point of pride for the members that show us around.
I have been at an event this week in Rochdale Town Hall to mark the work over 100 years of the Co-operative College.
Education has been a principle of co-operative action throughout and the combination has been an extraordinary accelerator over time for working class talent.
The second day of the conference has been focused on cooperative education around the world. I had the privilege of chairing a panel of five outstanding cooperative educators from five countries:
Dr Cilla Ross (UK)
Dr Sonja Novkovic (Canada)
Professor Esther Gicheru (Kenya)
Mr Noel D Raboy (Philippines)
Professor Mohamed M Maie (Somalia)
How are we to make sense of cooperative education around the world? I introduced the idea of co-operative education through a picture.
What pictures of cooperation would you choose? I’d be interested to learn.
Here is the one that I picked, one that I saw first hand in an exhibition at the National Gallery London in 2015.
This oil painting, The Sampling Officials or The Syndics, is one of Rembrandt’s group portraits – think also of the Night Watch and the Anatomy Lecture. It was painted in 1662, so it is one of his later works.
These are elected officials of the Drapers Guild. It is their job to check the quality of cloth produced through the guild.
For me, this is six portraits in one. But it is also one portrait, of a group in harmony.
There is tranquility in the picture, emerging from the composition Rembrandt has used. Look at the way that three horizontal lines suggest balance, the table through to the arm of the chair, the dominant level of their heads and the top of the panel on the wall.
There is colour and texture, light and shadow.
Equal importance is given to each person, the servant in the centre and the five officials. Each has a personality that comes through. Each is lit; as always with Rembrandt he uses light to tell us where to look.
The traditional interpretation of the painting is that the officials are on a platform before the assembly of the Drapers’ Guild and they are giving the assembly – us the viewer – an account of the year’s business. In short, it is a co-operative AGM.
The guilds can be thought of as mutual associations with members and typically a degree of internal democracy. In my book A Short History of Cooperation and Mutuality, free to download, I point out how these early forms of co-operation also underpin the art that we value today.
The word masterpiece – in origin – means a piece of work produced by a member who wanted to be rated as a master of their guild. The Dutch Masters were literally masters: painters who were organised into entrepreneurial guilds. The patron saint for artists was St Luke. But with church patronage in decline in the Low Countries, in Calvinist times, the Guilds of St Luke turned instead to domestic customers, developing an extraordinary market for art.
By the time that the Sampling Officials was painted, 45,000 paintings were estimated to hang on the walls of homes in Delft.
Rembrandt’s painting was commissioned by the Drapers Guild and hung behind this platform, in their guildhall for one hundred years. It is a projection of what the guild is, an act of co-operative education from the day it was hung for all who are part and who join. Through quiet co-operation, you can be immortal.
So, if you want to be immortal, I’d encourage you to explore and perhaps even to master the art of co-operative education.
On January 14th 2013 a horse-drawn carriage, with trumpeters following and snow flakes falling, carried the coffin of Keith Crombie, proprietor of the Pink Lane Jazz Cafe, on a final journey across the city of Newcastle. This was the death at the age of seventy four of a remarkable local character, known as The Jazz Man, but it also threatened to be the death of the city’s heart of jazz.
With permission from Crombie’s relatives, Dave Parker stood up with a small group of fellow jazz lovers, to ask whether the way to keep the legacy of the Jazz Man alive was to form a co-operative of those who wanted to see a jazz club survive. He promised to set up a Facebook page at the end of the wake and asked anyone who liked the idea to like the page. By the end of the weekend, five hundred people had added their name. The Jazz Co-op was born.
Keith Crombie was by all accounts curmudgeonly, eccentric and gifted. He had been involved in the North East jazz scene from the 1960s and around 1990 he started the Jazz Café, a small music venue in Newcastle’s West End which he ran until his death in 2012. He was picky about who came in. He once famously turned away the entire Newcastle FC squad. Actors and musicians though were welcome. The Shakespearian actor, Greg Hicks commented in a tribute at the funeral that:
The Jazz Cafe for me was a place where the world became better. Keith had the lock-in to a Noah’s ark of brilliant music, brilliant camaraderie and straight talk. He was one of the most uncompromising and authentic men I have ever met.
Within a few weeks, a co-operative was set up legally with broad objectives to support the performance and development of jazz, poetry, dance and related arts. During 2013 it established regular jazz nights at various venues in Newcastle while the old Jazz Cafe remained closed. It wasn’t plain sailing though.
“We had hoped to buy or lease the Jazz Cafe premises and we had several meetings with the owners, but that wasn’t possible,” said Dave Parker, who plays double bass himself and learned to play jazz at the Jazz Cafe. Jazz and co-operatives, he describes as his two great passions. “In the meantime we learned the hard way that it’s nearly impossible to make a jazz club financially sustainable. To make it viable you need to get income from bar sales.”
In 2014, after a year of hosting events across different venues, a suitable home came up for sale, The Globe, a pub which was being sold off or closed down by the pub company that owned it. Previous tenants had build up a following for music at the pub and in a non-residential area, it had a rare late night license.
The co-op needed the money to bid, and at this point in the story, Co-operatives UK stepped in, in partnership with Locality with support through a pioneering online platform, now commonplace, to make it easy for existing and new members to invest in ‘community shares’ – equity for co-ops.
Two thirds of what was needed for the sale and the refurbishment was raised from two hundred people – artists, activists and music lovers – with a bridging loan for the remainder coordinated by the specialist Co-operative and Community Finance.
On April 30th 2014, International Jazz Day, The Jazz Co-op was launched at its new permanent home. With an emphasis on inclusivity through the refurbishment, The Globe became one of the few small music venues in Tyneside to be fully accessible.
Over the last year, the Jazz Coop has put on 70 jazz gigs, including both local and visiting musicians, but to widen its revenue base and appeal, The Globe has also hosted over 200 other live music and dance events.
“We didn’t set out to own a pub. We set out to promote learning, playing and listening to of jazz, but in order to make that possible, we have to earn money. We decided early on that we would not ask for grants, because to do so would put us in competition with existing arts bodies and we value all that they do” says Dave Parker, now co-chair of the co-operative.
The links between jazz and co-operation are natural ones, says the great cooperative researcher Professor Johnston Birchall, himself a jazz guitarist.
You can be an individual and a team player. A good jazz musician can join a jazz band anywhere – a good co-operator can join a co-operative anywhere.
Both are about shared freedom. Just as a co-operative is a device in business to allow different people with different skills to come together as equals and create something new, jazz allows different musicians with different talents to play together within a consistent musical framework. For both, you have to listen to others in the band, to keep the whole in harmony and to help highlight the right themes at the right times.
The musical framework and freedom of jazz, Johnston Birchall tells me, is rooted in a rich theoretical language that is derived from a relatively simple set of rules. George Russell, a jazz pianist, set these down in a 1953 book, The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organisation – drawing on his time playing with musicians such as Miles Davis and Dizzy Gillespie in New York at the time.
Both can be seen as complex evolving systems that:
are connected with enough flex and variety not to be too rigid or homogenous
can self organise with reference to some simple rules
can change over time, without the results being predetermined.
Russell’s work found expression in the best selling jazz record of all time, Kind of Blue, released in 1959 by Miles Davis. Before this, jazz was organised within the confines of harmonic progression, chords building towards a tonal resolution. In Russell’s new formula, the rhythm section sustain a harmony sequence, while soloists explore the melodies that each chord allows, improvising with more freedom.
For me, it is indeed reminiscent of the seven principles of co-operatives, which establish a framework of rules and values within which freedom to co-operate can be given diverse expression. As the saying goes, if you have seen one co-op, you have seen… one co-op.
For the two combined, any jazz lover is free to join the Jazz Co-op and invest in it as a member, and indeed my own membership application, after meeting members in Newcastle on Friday, is in the post.
Perhaps not surprisingly, part of the encouragement for the Jazz Co-op has come not just from fellow Newcastle co-ops such as Alpha, an outstanding communications co-op, but also from fellow music co-operatives. These include the Bell Inn in Bath, itself an extraordinary community success story, Hackney Co-operative Developments, which hosts the Vortex Club in London, and more recently the Sir Charles Napier in Blackburn.
Each of these in its own way offer examples of community buy-outs – a democratic variant on what is still common in the business world of ‘management buy-outs’. In Scotland, it has been land that has led the way, with a target to achieve one million acres in community ownership. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, it has been community assets, including pubs.
The story of Keith Crombie lives on through the Jazz Co-op, but it has also been charted through a documentary directed by the film-maker Abi Lewis and supported in part through crowd-funding. The film won a best factual production award at the Royal Television Society Awards and an international film prize at the NorthWestFest in Canada.
As Dave Parker of the Jazz Co-op puts it “we can’t bring Keith back but we can continue the work he has done.”
Or as Keith Crombie himself put it when asked about jazz, freedom and his jazz cafe in the bustling heart of Newcastle,
I never worry what other people think. I just do what I do.
I have had the opportunity to hear the stories of people from a number of co-operative enterprises in Rwanda, host this year to the annual conference of the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA).
The country is rebuilding impressively over recent years, after the horrors of the war and genocide of 1994.
Every town has a Genocide Memorial, including one in the capital city Kigali, which I visited with an ICA delegation, to lay a wreath in remembrance.
The cooperative sector before 1994 had been weak, seen as a conduit for donors, but in the last decade, they have started to play a much wider role in the economy. In 2007, legislation was passed for co-operatives, and each sector of farming was organised into primary co-ops, federations and unions, offering a chance to bring cooperation into the entire value chain.
Today, the number of cooperative members is 3,816,591, representing over half of all the Rwanda adult population (55.3% of Rwanda). The number of co-operative enterprise has increased from 919 in 2005 to 8,995 in 2018.
This rebuilding of the co-operative sector has helped the country to reduce levels of poverty and inequality, Monique Nsantabaganwa, Deputy Governor, Rwanda Central Bank told ICA delegates on Thursday. “Taken together, the co-operative sector is nowRwanda’s biggest wealth creator” said the Business and Industry Minister, Soraya Hakuziyaremye.
Following an excellent three day conference, exploring the role of co-operatives in advancing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (which you can read more about via the reports of Co-op News) I had the chance to meet two transport co-operatives operating out of the capital city, Kigali.
One, Coctramavk, was formed in 2009 by 88 lorry drivers, each investing ten thousand Rwandan francs (around ten US dollars). One of the founders was Peter Kambanda and he showed me one of the seven trucks today that is jointly owned by the co-op, alongside the trucks (typically imported from Europe after they had been driven for around 300,000 kilometres) owned by the members themselves.
Peter Kambanda, co-founder of the Drivers’ Co-op
They compete for contracts to drive goods between Rwanda and around seven other countries in the region. Today they have ninety eight members, with good profits, shared as a dividend for each in 2018 of six hundred thousand Rwandan francs (around six hundred dollars). The co-op also offers medical insurance too for members and their families.
Medical insurance is also on the to do list for the second co-op I visited. Remera Transport Co-operative was formed by seventy cab drivers in November 2011, each contributing capital of one hundred thousand Rwandan francs. When a competition was run for the provision of public transport in the city, Remera won the contract for twenty one routes.
In 2014, therefore, the co-op borrowed money to finance the purchase of the first seven coasters (29 seater minibuses), with a further eleven in 2015. Today, it has paid off the loans and increased its capacity with 70 seater buses too. In concert with the regulator and other co-ops serving different routes, it has introduced tap and go payment technology, to make public transport cashless. The buses also operate free WiFi.
Remera Transport Co-operative
The co-op has won awards from the Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority for its services and has increased its members from 70 to 240.
Eric, member, Remera Transport Co-operative
In a blustering wind, with rains falling outside, Eric, a member of the co-op, described to me the key challenges as ones of access to capital, traffic jams and a lack of public awareness of the importance of co-operatives. “We overcome each of these challenges by working hard and being optimistic.”
The achievements he lists of the venture as: creating employment, reducing poverty and contributing to the national government through taxes.
Eric, for one, was proud of their contribution to taxation. He liked the idea of the Fair Tax Mark, pioneered by co-ops and social enterprise in the UK.
His words chimed for me with an event I saw being organised which was Taxpayers Appreciation Day and the song with which Peter and his fellow lorry drivers had welcomed us with – 🎵Who will build Rwanda? We will build Rwanda and we will do it by ourselves.
Self help? You can’t fake it, and you certainly can’t beat it.